Most TOTALization partners in the United States have more social security agreements in force than the United States with their 28 as of November 2018. By comparison, in 2014, Canada, France, Germany and the United Kingdom – which enter into treaty-to-treaty totalization agreements, thus avoiding some of the legal constraints of the U.S. process – had 57, 80, 50 and 53 agreements respectively (Leeuwenhaag 2014). As has already been said, the removal of double taxation of income in other countries could lead to greater foreign direct investment in the United States. In addition, thousands of beneficiaries who are not currently eligible for a pension from one or both countries could benefit from an extensive totalization program. Workers who have shared their careers between the United States and a foreign country may not be entitled to pensions, survivor benefits or disability insurance (pensions) from one or both countries because they have not worked long or recently enough to meet minimum conditions. Under an agreement, these workers may benefit from partially U.S. or foreign benefits on the basis of combined or “totalized” coverage credits from both countries. These exceptions, based on the country of nationality or nationality of the worker, are provisions of the Social Security Act.
In most cases, totalization agreements expand the ability of benefits to be nsogability based on their residence. Any foreigner wishing to apply for an exemption from U.S. Social Security and Medicare taxes on the basis of a totalization agreement must obtain an insurance certificate from the social security authority of his country of origin and present such proof of insurance to his employer in the United States, in accordance with procedures 80-56, 84-54 and Ruling 92-9. An alternative procedure is provided in these revenue procedures for a foreigner who is unable to obtain a certificate of coverage from his country of origin. Unfortunately, the main beneficiary countries in the region, which are also the richest in the region – Cameroon, Gabon, Senegal – have not ratified the CIPRES convention on social security. Therefore, the CIPRES agreement can only have a marginal impact. As international mobility has increased in recent decades, more and more countries have developed such agreements. Nevertheless, more work is needed to implement effective mechanisms to protect the social rights of migrant workers. The convention meets the five objectives of the social security agreements and includes all workers, family members and survivors who are nationals of a contracting party to the agreement and who are or have been subject to one of the parties to the social security scheme.